Development of brain-computer interface (BCI)-controlled virtual reality (VR) games has received increasing attention. Yet, the up-to-date BCI-VR systems were still based on one single BCI and a virtual environment (VE). In this paper, we propose and implement a novel BCI-controlled VR (BCI-VR) game based on a structure of internet of brains (IoB) allowing multiple players from different sites to play a car racing game online. Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) signals from different sites’ BCIs are uploaded to a high-performance cloud server where the car-controlled algorithms are performed. During the online car racing period, the players mentally control the speeds of their chosen cars by means of concentration, and the concentration level can be adjusted by performing a mental arithmetic (MA) task with different levels of difficulty. Two linear and two nonlinear EEG features, including theta band power (BP), beta BP, Higuchi's fractal dimension (HFD), and Katz's FD (KFD), are used to transform the concentration level to speeds of four different cars. The players can also sensitively trigger the car in the VE to jump by performing a slight teeth-gritting task to generate easy-to-detect EMG signals. Six subjects participated in this study to test the performance of the proposed hybrid (EEG plus EMG) BCI-VR car racing game. The results indicate that theta BP and HFD are more sensitive to the MA-induced concentration in comparison with beta BP and KFD. Through the test of online car racing game, the results also demonstrated the feasibility that different players play the game in the same VE through multiple BCI control at different sites. More importantly, our BCI-VR implementation has a high usability (only two electrodes are required; calibration needs only 64 s) and high feasibility (high average scores of the control, sensory, and distraction factors in a 30-item post-experimental presence questionnaire).
Resource Library » High-Performance Computing » A multiplayer online car racing virtual-reality game based on internet of brains
Other content in this Stream
LRZ supports trailblazing scientific research with Lenovo technology
Utilizing Lenovo’s Neptune™ liquid cooling technology, Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) enables groundbreaking research with an energy-efficient supercomputer.
GOAST: Genomics Optimization and Scalability Tool
An Intel® Select Solution for Genomics Analytics enabling Precision Medicine at the population scale.
Blog: Neptune helps Lenovo drive a data center sea change
Neptune technologies are part of Lenovo’s commitment to tackling the world’s greatest challenges with innovative technological advancements.
Press Release: Lenovo delivers powerful, energy efficient supercomputer to Leibniz
One of our newest supercomputers supports LRZ in its groundbreaking research across scientific disciplines, including astrophysics, fluid dynamics and life sciences.
Lenovo becomes world’s largest TOP500 supercomputing provider
At the International Supercomputing Conference (ISC) in Frankfurt, Lenovo continued its global momentum, becoming the world’s largest TOP500 supercomputing provider.
Case Study Malaysian Meteorological Department
Lenovo Powers MareNostrum 4 at Barcelona Supercomputing Center
Nestled inside the Barcelona Supercomputing Center on the campus of the Polytechnic University of Catalonia, is supercomputer MareNostrum 4. Boasting over 3,400 Lenovo ThinkSystem servers each perf
Case Study Barcelona Supercomputing Center
Vestas harnesses the power of the wind with big data analytics running on Lenovo
Renewable energy giant Vestas uses a Lenovo HPC supercomputer cluster to support game-changing big data analytics. The company can analyze streaming data from over 64,000 turbines around the world – d
Case Study Vestas
SciNet pushes scientific boundaries on climate research
To support vital scientific research in fields as diverse as astrophysics, biomedicine and climate science, SciNet beefed up its high-performance computing resources with a Lenovo ThinkSystem supercom
Case Study SciNet
Case Study CINECA
NC State University Analyzes Effects of Climate Change with Lenovo & Artificial Intelligence
The North Carolina State University Geospatial Analytics Research team is leveraging innovative Geospatial Image Analysis and the Lenovo Artificial Intelligence Innovation Center to preemptively ident
Case Study North Carolina State University
Lenovo High Performance Computing - Genome
A new collaboration with researchers and software engineers at The Intel-Broad Center for Genomic Data Engineering will build, optimize, and widely share new tools that will help scientists integrate
Lenovo High Performance Configuration for Oracle Database 12c
Powering the research that matters the most